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AlphaServer 1200 — Gentoo, OpenBSD or NetBSD? Or quite old Debian?

There’s a question about what to run on it. OpenVMS on one HD makes sense, just to see what it’s like. Other OSs that are still available include NetBSD, OpenBSD, Gentoo — that’s about it. There’s a Debian community supported option out there, which is a mighty effort but which is likely to require some hacking to work. A small group of enthusiasts just can’t be expected to test stuff on all different types of hardware.

Here I sum up my experiences so far, given I am in mid-process.

Debian: Official Debian support for Alpha ended with Debian 5.0.10, the last update to Lenny, in about 2012. That makes it vulnerable to security exploits, though one suspects that anything that depends on a hardware exploit is pretty unlikely — how many nasties are out there targeting Linux on Alpha? If security by obscurity is ever going to work, this is it! On the other hand, once the system is installed there’s no update cycle to worry about, and the software ecosystem is pretty big (no Open/LibreOffice, but that’s about it). I’ve got a whole post on putting Debian 5 on the thing. Short answer: (almost) works right out of the box.

OpenBSD: Installs effortlessly, but lacks an X server, though does have some X tools. I guess that means you could use X on the machine if you had a second machine acting as the server, or maybe try to use the NetBSD ports/pkgsrc route. OpenBSD looks like a good option for a server or if the text terminal is your thing.

NetBSD: Installs just as easily. X is there, just haven’t quite got it to work. Since OpenBSD can be made to play with NetBSDs source packages, it may be possible to get X onto OpenBSD in a roundabout way.  Tried to compile X and to install ‘modular X’ ( but compile of the server failed with various problems with the C code which I am not in a position to wrestle with (‘cos I don’t know enough C and I do not intend to spend my time learning it). Looks like the code just does not dovetail with the Alpha. I’ve not given up yet. NetBSD without X seems to work fine, I should add, and X is not everything.

Gentoo: Life is too short for this! Actually, I intend to have a crack. Already tried once and failed but I think that was me not Gentoo — made some mistakes with the (long and arduous) install process and ended up with a broken system. Need to try again.

Debian unofficial: The 9.0 install media would not boot on my machine. The 8.0 booted and installed but X does not work out of the box and ‘$ Xorg -configure’ throws a seg fault. Lots of ‘unaligned traps’ suggests that a lot of the code base has not been customised for one of the unfortunate quirks of the Alpha architecture. Tried importing the xorg.conf from Deb 5 but it did not like that.  May need to recompile X.  Experimenting with apt-src, but looks like this is not going to work without a lot of hands-on.

I have 3 SCSI HD I can use. Debian 5 is working well. I’d like to have a BSD for interest. So Gentoo or Debian unofficial? I’m inclined towards having another crack at Gentoo. Especially now that I have increased my internet download limit.


Compile it.



A Quick View of the Old Town: Ballarat

In January this year I spent four days in Ballarat, my home town. It lies to the west of Melbourne, just about an hour up the road. It grew quickly in the 1850s when gold was discovered, with the result that it possesses some fine examples of Victorian Victorian architecture that would not be out of place in a much bigger city.

Ballarat train station.

Ballarat train station.

The local art gallery is rather good for a regional Australian one, with works by major Australian artists scattered around (Norman Lindsay, Arthur Boyd). When I was there they were showing Orthodox Christian Icons and a series of prints called ‘Radicals, slayers and villains’ which were superbly grotesque and included ‘engravings of memorable decapitations’.

Upstairs in the Oddie Gallery a pianist and flautist were playing, filling the old building with music.

It was really rather good, especially seeing as except for the travelling ‘Eikon’ exhibition there was no entry fee at all.

The gallery is in Lydiard Street, a street which is replete with excellent examples of older (by Australian standards) architecture, such that the Dr Blake mysteries (shown on ABC TV in Australia and perhaps elsewhere) are filmed there. A favourite of mine is the old Mining Exchange, a relic of the gold days and a quintessential Ballarat building.  When I was young it was just a shell, with grass growing up from cracks in  the floor, and I used to use it for a short cut between city blocks.  Since then it has been restored, but mostly stands idle waiting for some genius to figure out what to do with it besides admire it.

We rode the old trams up at the lake, and toured the museum.  All very relaxed.

A million miles on a tram.

A million miles on a tram.

Nostalgia? I don’t know.  I don’t want to turn back time.  But it is nice to revisit a place and see that there are many good things about it that are not just tricks of the memory.


PS: ‘Victorian Victorian’ is not an error.  Ballarat is in the state of Victoria in Australia.


And then.

Historical History: A History of Egypt by J. H. Breasted

A History of Egypt: From the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest, by Prof. J. H. Breasted.

Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1956.  634 pages plus inserted plates and maps.


This is the 1956 reprint of Breasted’s landmark work, first published in 1905, revised and updated 1909.  So it is over 100 years old in its information, conception and opinions.  It it rooted in the 19th century, when Breasted was an important figure in changing archaeology from exploration into science.

Front cover of my battered copy.

Front cover of my battered copy.

So what is the value of reading ‘outdated’ factual books?  I am not a scholar of Breasted’s work, though he is a major figure and people are, and I am not a professional historian, so I do not read it to learn about the evolution of the disciplines of Egyptology or History.  I read it because it is a lot of fun to read.

The book has many great strengths.  These include detailed maps and drawings, many superb photographs of fascinating places, buildings and objects  — such as this one, a well-fed man who looks ready to turn to face us as we look at his wooden head, sculptured almost 5000 years ago:

Fig 51 from A History of Egypt

Breasted’s writing is very easy to read.  He is evocative and precise at the same time.  I read the book every spare moment; the narrative was as compelling as any thriller, as we saw the rise and fall and rise again of a people. Manetho‘s King List (modified) is included in the back, as is a fold-out map of the region from the Nile Delta to ‘Khartûm’.  As a  coherent picture of the evolution of one of the fundamental sources of ‘Western’ civilisation it is a superb resource — I note it has been reprinted as recently as … well, you can buy it for your Kindle for about $1… or just get it for free.

The book feels like the major work that it is.  It is heavy, beautifully produced on paper that allows high quality reproduction of the figures.  The tipped in photographs are black and white but generous.  The thing cost  £4 in the mid 1950s — a time when the average weekly wage was around £15.

Some things do date the work — he does speak disparagingly of the ‘oriental’ way of running a nation, which seems to be a term historians of a certain vintage use to describe despotic nations and empires where the ruler is akin to a God and court intrigues cause dynasties to rise and fall — I have often come across the term in the context of the Late Roman/Byzantine Empire, where emperors like Diocletian are said to have changed it from the Imperial, Augustine system of emperor as Princeps to a more ‘oriental’ style of Emperor as a figure distant, surrounded by mystery and ritual, and very much apart from his people (I say ‘his’ on purpose, though there were a handful of female rulers of Byzantium).

I am not enough of an expert on Egyptian history to know what of Breasted’s conclusions are wrong, which is perhaps the biggest negative in reading an older work — although many a newer book will paint uncertain or contested results as known, if the author finds them congenial…  Breasted lays out a convincing map of the development from pre-dynastic Egypt through Old Kingdom and troubles and Middle Kingdom and troubles (the ‘Hyksos’) to the empire of the new Kingdom (the Amenhoteps, Ikhnaton, Tutankhamen and Ramseses), and then through the strife-ridden, slow decay prior to Egypt’s absorption into the Persian Empire — a time easy to overlook compared to the the mystery of the Old Kingdom and the glory of the Empire and the drama of Ikhnaton’s religious revolution, but not without bright spots, like the rule of Psamtik I.

I suspect what Breasted puts together here is the template for ensuing attempts to outline Egyptian history — that this work and the body of original research, much of it his own, that it draws upon were for a time the ‘default’ and refinements were undertaken relative to Breasted’s pattern.

There are more typographical errors than I would have expected, and for me the highly modulated font (Baskerville) on shiny paper is not ideal for reading;  these things detract little.

Lastly, since it is an old book and an important book, it is freely available on the web.  Take a look at