Using gnuplot and METAFONT to add Graphics to LaTeX documents
I’ve gone from looking at fonts to looking at METAFONT to looking at programs that can output METAFONT code. It’s all slightly old technology, but METAFONT (and METAPOST) remain elegant and instructive (and useful) solutions for some problems.
This is a very basic look at using METAFONT and gnuplot to make figures for use in LaTeX. I am using Linux, but the same process ought to work for other LaTeX environments; indeed, that ought to be one of its strengths. (A quick test using DOSBox and I can see it works in DOS with emTeX.)
An archive of this little note and some associated files is available here.
1. First, on firing up gnuplot, type this:
gnuplot> help set term mf detailed
and copy the result to a text file (I just used cut and paste off the screen). It is 90% of what you need, maybe more if you are more knowledgeable than me.
2. Then type something like this:
gnuplot> set xrange [0:3.14159] gnuplot> plot sin(x), cos(x) gnuplot> set term mf gnuplot> set output "test2.mf" gnuplot> replot gnuplot> exit
3. Then edit the resulting file test2.mf and read the bit that says:
%Include next eight lines if you have problems with the mode on your %system.. proofing:=0; fontmaking:=1; tracingtitles:=0; pixels_per_inch:=600; blacker:=0; fillin:=.2; o_correction:=.6; fix_units;
and think about uncommenting bits. I uncommented all of it, as you can see, but maybe I did not have to.
4. Then type something like:
$ mf '\mode=ljfour; input test2' $ gftopk test2.600gf
and have a look at the files you have created; you ought to see test2.600pk/gf and test2.tfm.
5. If you like at this point you can try:
$ gftodvi test2.600gf $ xdvi test
and you should see the picture appear in the .dvi file (though the ‘gray’ font is needed for this, and that can be quite another story. If this does not work just go on).
6. Now, you want your LaTeX file to be able to use your figure. It does so as a font rather than as a graphic. Since LaTeX (and TeX) can handle fonts natively but uses external packages to import other graphic formats, this is a strength of the approach, though less important in these days of very powerful machines.
Create a simple .tex file. Put the below in the preamble (though it can go anywhere you like as long as it’s before you want to use the figure):
This tells the typesetting program that you want to use a font called ‘gnufigs’, and that the information about this font is in files called test2.tfm and test2.XXXpk where XXX is the dots-per-inch (600 in the example above).
The picture is character 0 (zero) in your ‘font’. Indeed, if you’ve only done as I suggest here, it is the only character. To insert it you just type:
somewhere in your file. You can embed this in a figure environment if you want the usual LaTeX cross referencing. See for example figure 1. Note that this does not use \includegraphics, so does not have access to all the formatting, scaling, cropping and other options of that command.
7. What if it doesn’t work?
If your dvi viewer or whatever you are using to convert the .dvi file to another format (PDF, PostScript, etc) complains that it can’t find the font, it may mean that is is not clever enough to generate the pk file that it needs from the output. What I have done above generates 600 dpi output, but your system may want something else. Best thing is to put the required dpi (it should be apparent in the error messages) into the top of the .mf file — as noted above, there are some fields to uncomment if you like, and they can also be edited. Then run gftopk on the resulting .XXXgf file and you should be away. The mode flag on the command line may need to be altered or removed, I’m not sure.
You may find that dvipdfmx does a better job of making a PDF from the .dvi file than going via PostScript. I find that the PostScript from dvips looks good but ps2pdf sometimes does not give a good PDF file where dvipdfmx does. It’s probably something to do with search paths — perhaps ps2pdf does not search the current directory.
8. Some more details.
LaTeX (and TeX) need only the .tfm file to typeset the document — it contains the information on the sizes and so forth of the characters. But rendering the ‘glyph’ needs the pk file. I find it simplest to leave these font files in the working directory. It makes little sense to install a graphic as a font system-wide.
Keep in mind that gnuplot is scriptable. It can be run from the command line. All the other steps can be similarly automated. That means that this is a nice path for incorporating graphics that may themselves need to be updated. Say you are using gnuplot to plot a text file full of data. If that text file changes, you can just rerun a script that calls gnuplot and runs and any ancillary programs you need. This allows the graphics to be dynamically updated without having to manually update them. A similar thing can be done with other forms of output from gnuplot, of course.